The Chelsea midfielder was dropped for last month’s Uefa Nations League matches despite being part of the squad that reached the World Cup semi-finals in Russia earlier this year.
However, he has since scored a hat-trick for the Blues against BATE Borisov in the Europa League and also scored his first Premier League goal of the season in Chelsea’s 4-0 thrashing just under two weeks ago.
Those performances have proved sufficient to seal the 22-year-old’s place in a squad including uncapped Bournemouth striker Callum Wilson.
Borussia Dortmund’s Jadon Sancho has kept his place, but Southgate’s selections are overshadowed by Wayne Rooney’s dramatic return to win his 120th and final cap with a farewell cameo as a substitute against the United States.
The England boss said: “I think all of the players would respect that Wayne’s contribution deserves the best possible send-off. I understand that has caused a lot of debate and conjecture but for me it is a small way of appreciating what he has done for his country.”
Midfielders Dele Alli and Jesse Lingard return after being ruled out of last month’s Nations League double-header against Spain and Croatia through injury – with youngsters Mason Mount and James Maddison dropping out.
Alex McCarthy, Luke Shaw and Danny Welbeck are also included, having been forced to withdraw from the previous squad due to minor injuries.
Everton defender Michael Keane is included in an England squad for the first time in 12 months, with uncapped Brighton centre-back Lewis Dunk also retaining his place.
Goalkeepers: Marcus Bettinelli (Fulham), Jack Butland (Stoke City), Alex McCarthy (Southampton), Jordan Pickford (Everton)
Defenders: Trent Alexander-Arnold (Liverpool), Ben Chilwell (Leicester City), Lewis Dunk (Brighton & Hove Albion), Joe Gomez (Liverpool), Michael Keane (Everton), Luke Shaw (Manchester United), John Stones (Manchester City), Kieran Trippier (Tottenham Hotspur), Kyle Walker (Manchester City)
Midfielders: Dele Alli (Tottenham Hotspur), Ross Barkley (Chelsea), Fabian Delph (Manchester City), Eric Dier (Tottenham Hotspur), Jordan Henderson (Liverpool), Jesse Lingard (Manchester United), Ruben Loftus-Cheek (Chelsea), Harry Winks (Tottenham Hotspur)
Forwards: Harry Kane (Tottenham Hotspur), Marcus Rashford (Manchester United), Wayne Rooney (DC United)*, Jadon Sancho (Borussia Dortmund), Raheem Sterling (Manchester City), John Stones (Manchester City), Danny Welbeck (Arsenal), Callum Wilson (AFC Bournemouth)
*Will only feature against USA